Акад. Васил Гюзелев представя видния историк проф. Петър Мутафчиев. София, 1987 г.
Подробна биобиблиография на проф. Петър Мутафчиев, съставена от Веселин Вълчев. София, 1992 г.
Сборник в чест на проф. Петър Мутафчиев, съставен от проф. Георги Бакалов. Съдържа статии от Димитър Ангелов, Петър Динеков, Васил Гюзелев и др. София, 1996 г.
Сборник в чест на 130-годишнината от рождението и 70-годишнината от смъртта на проф. П. Мутафчиев. Съдържа статии от Богдан Богданов, Лъчезар Стоянов, Цветана Чолова, Светла Янева, Румен Генов и др. София, 2016 г.
Papers of a Conference
Dedicated to the 130th Anniversary of the Birth
and 70th Anniversary of the Death of
Professor Petar Mutafchiev
WHO WAS PETAR MUTAFCHIEV AND WHY WAS HE
BRANDED A FASCIST?
The author examines different periods in the life of Petar Mutafchiev, and the role of the dramatic events in Bulgaria and in the world, that exerted formative influence on his scholarly production, and on his public activities. On the basis to trace the development of his scholarly career, and of establishing him as one of the best Bulgarian historians. Alongside with that, his growing public activity in the 1930s, which made him one of the most respected and influential public figures in the country, is presented. During the critical years of the Second World War he tried to rethink in philosophical terms the historical fate of the Bulgarian nation, and wrote the most popular and conceptual books, „History of the Bulgarian people“ and „Book of the Bulgarians.“ Both remained unfinished, however, for he died in 1943.
The fonns and aims of the radical political, economic and ideological changes in Bulgaria after taking the power on September 9, 1944 by the Bulgarian communists, is outlined. In their drive to impose a communist society and ideology, they unfolded a struggle to eradicate bourgeois legacy in all areas, including history. Naturally that posed the question of assessment of the personality and work of Petar Mutafchiev, as one of the most prominent representatives of bourgeois scholarship and public thought. The motives of his branding as a fascist in 1946, as well as the arguments for doing that by Aleksandar Burmov at the crucial conference for the „reorientation of the historical scholarship“ in the spring of 1948, are given in detail in this paper. Culmination of the slanderous campaign were the allegations made by Petar Petrov during the Stalinist regime, in 1952.
Finally, the paper deals with the gradual process rehabilitation and re-discovery of the innovative and conceptual work of Petar Mutafchiev. One of the indicative facts in that respect was the naming after him of an auditoriums of the New Bulgarian University.
PROVIDENTIAL PASSION AND HIGH SYNTHESIS IN THE HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ESSAYS OF PROF. PETAR MUTAFCHIEV
The paper explores the texts of Petar Mutafchiev published in scholarly and literary journals in the 1930s. These rather neglected texts reflect the tragic perception of the Bulgarian Medieval and Byzantine history by the great historian, which led to the sad conclusion about the „strange lack of continuity, consistency and uniform motion“ in our national history. Without transponing that perception they serve as a point of reference in Mutafchiev’s analysis of the present and for his providential vision.
PHILOSOPHY OPTICS TO BULGARIAN HISTORY
(P. MUTAFCHIEV, A.TOYNBEE, D. OBOLENSKY)
The paper explores the historiosophic approaches to Bulgarian history of the three great 20th century historians – Petar Mutafchiev, Arnold Toynbee and Dimitry Obolensky. Everyone in their turn they seek in their study of the past to find enlightenment of the past for the complicated problems of the present. Their approach is, however, different – Mutachiev’s one is motivated by his intense patriotism, while Toynbee premise is the humanity as a whole, and Obolensky’ interpretation is rather neutral within the Byzantine commonwealth.
HIERARCHY OF POWER AND HIERARCHY OF
LANDOWNERSHIP IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE
(PROF. PETAR MUTAFCHIEV CONCERNING FEUDALISM)
Prof. Tsvetana Cholova
Petar Mutafchiev is one of the most prominent researchers of the economic history of Byzantium and medieval Bulgaria. He is one of the few historians who clearly distinguish the Byzantine and Bulgarian type of landownership from Western European feudalism. One of the topics, developed in detail in the works of P. Mutafchiev, though particularly challenged by Marxist historiography in our country, is associated with the type of ownership and is related to the so called Feudalism as widespread phenomenon in the East and West in the Middle Ages.
Early in his career Petar Mutafchiev, under the influence of socialist ideas, argues for the existence of feudal relations in medieval Bulgaria. This is characteristic of his works until the First World War. Later, based on a detailed study of land ownership relations in Byzantium, he became one of the main advocates of the thesis underlining the differences in the organization of land system in Eastern and Western Europe and in this sense the absence of feudal relations in the East.
„Feudalism, whose essence was the compound of political power with land ownership, was never introduced inside the Byzantine lands. This is precisely one of the biggest differences between Byzantium and the countries which are under its cultural influence on the one hand and the Western one on the other.“
The formation of independent possessions and the fragmentation of Bulgarian state, according to Mutafchiev, have another explanation and it is not at all related to the introduction of feudal relations.
Modem Bulgarian historiography is still catching up with the achievements of Bulgarian scientists-medievalists before World War II, especially the concepts of Petar Mutafchiev, which are still valid today. It is therefore necessary to publish the entirety of their works and to aim at their accurate implementation in modem research.
ENDURING RELEVANCE OF PETAR MUTAFCHIEV
Few are the Bulgarian social scientists revealed the peculiarities of our historical development in such a way as to be perceived as a norm and a starting point for further generalizations. And on the fingers can be counted those among them who dared to outline also the specificity that characterizes us as a people. One of the most prominent personalities in this respect is the Professor at the University of Sofia and member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Petar Mutafchiev (1883-1943). Deployed his creative activity in the interwar period, he is not only a typical representative of his times in terms of the questions moved the then society, but also one of its most distinctive „arousers“. He took to heart the burden of
his people after the war catastrophes and tried to digest both the regularities in its historical destiny and the ways to solve the national problems. The scholar pleads for the preservation of the Bulgarian „spirit“ in the lands dropped out of the county. He also rebuked sharply the imitations of foreign patterns in the social and political development and the phenomenon of the so-called semi-intelligentsia doomed our life to „infertility“. It was his patriotism and his mental superiority par excellence that caused virulent attacks against him in the years of imposition of the communist regime.
THE LECTURES ON BYZANTINE HISTORY BY
PROF. PETAR MUTAFCHIEV
Prof. Petar Mutafchiev scheduled his lectures on Byzantine history in 1923 shortly before he started active lecturing at the History Department of St Clement Sofia University in the autumn of the same year. Twenty years later he still was making his amendments so the text remained unedited at the untimely death of the author in May 1943.
The paper deals with some details of the story of the first complete and unabridged edition of Mutafchiev’s lectures on Byzantine history published by Sofia publishing house Anubis in 1995 in two volumes. As Romans say – Habent sua fata libelli.
PETAR MUTAFCHIEV AND THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL
RESEARCH OF THE SUB-BALKAN VALLEY
P. Mutafchiev started his scholar career as archaeologist and the Medieval Department of the National Archaeological Museum in 1910. He started working within the cycle of experience and prominent archaeologists as Bogdan Filov (1883-1945), Ivan Velkov (1881-1958), Raphael Popov, Gavrail Kazarov and Andrey Protich. This presupposed the good concern to the problems of the European Middle Ages also the permanent connection with the community of the European archaeologists, but also the integration of the Bulgarian archaeology into the mainstream of the “Wien School”.
The archaeological research of Prof. Mutafchiev were directed in two paths – 1. Systematic excavations and analytical research of artifacts and 2. Registration of new archaeological sites through field survey, contributing to Carel ShkorpiTs “Archaeological Map of Bulgaria”.
It is hard from modern point of view one to give a real evaluation of Mutavchiev’s archaeological studies. Till the beginning of the Balkan war he accomplished four field studies, including excavations in the Sub-Bal- kan valley. Till his departure the Archaeological Museum to become professor of History in University of Sofia, Mutafchiev has published twenty three studies, dedicated to the problems of the archaeological research.
One of the basic topics of Mutafchiev’s studies was the problem about the Bulgarian Medieval identity. The written sources that provided a poor base made his turn to archaeology in search for “materials of factology”. He choose the high- and the uplands for field survey, claiming the special place of the mountains and the geographic factor in general within the formation of Bulgarian ethnicity.
THE HISTORIANS DILEMMA BETWEEN OBJECTIVE
REALITY AND POLITICISED INTERPRETATION
This study analyses the dilemma between objective reality and politicised interpretation in the historical researches and evaluations. It is build around two thematic dimensions. First one is centered on the personality and work of Prof. Petar Mutafchiev, which are objects of polar interpretations and assessments during the communist regime in Bulgaria and beyond. Here are set out the factors and causes for which one of the most significant Bulgarian medievalism-historian, public-spirited intellectual with bright mind and undisputable human dignity is condemned to rejection. It is shown that his spiritual and moral supremacy become hard to be tolerated in the context of this „completely torpor and infirmity“ period of the Bulgarian history, especially by people that are subjected to inherited fears and opportunistic behavior by nature and dedicated to support ideological dogmas and party decisions. The emotional interpretation of the history and the politicisation of the historical facts are also presented in the second thematic dimension. It is focused on the process of the Russia’s position-building up in the European policy during the 19th century. More precise, it is analysed how through one treaty (the treaty form Kuchuck Kajnardja, signet in 1774) and on the first place through its politicised interpretation Russia’s handling towards the Ottoman Empire started to be regarded as political legitimate. Following the same manner, it is possible to accumulate potential and influence not only towards one particular state but also to build up position in the European policy. In this case that already embraces the macro – level of the international policy again the objective reality is modeled through political considerations. The different interpretations of one and the same international treaty are also evidence about the delicate balance between objective reality and politicised interpretation in the history research, without thereby giving an answer, which of the two approaches should be preferred, even though the research is made in a society that is not burdened by ideological dogmas and party-considerations.
PETAR MUTAFCHIEV AND THE GEOPOLITICAL
FACTORS IN BULGARIAN HISTORY
Peter Mutaftschiev is one of the few Bulgarian researchers who investigate the geopolitical factors in Bulgarian history not only from politico-geographical point of view, but from a more complex perspective combining philosophical, historical, cultural and political methodological approaches.
In his „А Book about the Bulgarians“ and in other works, Mutaftschiev singles out four main geo-political factors which have determined Bulgarian fate in the Middle Ages. The first factor has to do with the role of the Byzantine Empire as the immediate Bulgarian neighbor and competitor. The second factor is the geographical position and natural characteristics of the Bulgarian lands themselves. The third factor is the complex connection between the politico-geographical and cultural-civilization influences in the geo-political history of Mediaeval Bulgaria. The fourth factor is the racial-biological elements in the formation of the Bulgarian people and their historical transformation.
HISTORY OF 15th-19th CENTURIES IN
PROF. PETAR MUTAFCHIEV’S WORKS AND ACTIVITY
The article focuses on a little known area of the research interests of Prof. Petar Mutafchiev – on his contributions to the investigation of the Ottoman past of Bulgaria and of the Balkans in the XV-XIX centuries. It analyses Prof Mutafchiev’s approaches in elaborating on several important historiographical problems from that period. The article examines further the initiatives and the contributions of Prof. Petar Mutafchiev for tracing, exploring and publishing new sources for the study of the past of the region in Ottoman times as well as for the creation of an overall strategy for their localization in foreign and domestic archives and for formulating a research agenda for their exploration. The place that the problems and period under consideration occupied in Prof. Mutafchiev’s teaching and popularizing activities are also considered. The article aims thus at complementing our knowledge about Prof. Petar Mutafchiev’s broad research interests and activities of and at highlighting the unique place that he occupies in Bulgarian and in European historiography from the interwar period.
TWO CYRILLIC GRAFFITI FROM THE CHURCH OF HAGIA SOPHIA IN CONSTANTINOPLE
“The paper deals with two Old Slavonic inscriptions-graffiti which have been scratched on the marble balustrade and column in Hagia Sophia. The first graffito is found in the temple’s western gallery. In its reconstructed from the graffito reads: Tarnovo 1562. Gospodi pomozi rabu svoemu Nekola, i.e. „Tarnovo 1562. Lord help Thy poor servant Nekola [Nicholas]“
The second one is situated on the marble column in the central part of the southern gallery. The text is: Gospodi pomozi rabu svoemu Filipu, i.e. „Lord help Thy poor servant Philip“. Paleography data allow us to refer the inscription to the XIVth century. It may be connected with the well-known graffito of Philip Mikitinich, a secretary of the Metropolitan of Kiev. It was scratched in the east bay of the southern gallery and on the left frame of the door #51.“
SLAVKO CHURY, AN INDEFATIGABLE RESEARCHER
OF THE SLOVAK-BULGARIAN RELATIONS
The works of the Slovak historian and archivist Slavko Chury (1935-2006), are a significant contribution to the promotion of knowledge about Bulgaria and Bulgarians in Slovak society, as well as for the expansion and enrichment of the sources and historiographical basis of the research of the bilateral relations. The main themes of his research in Bulgarian studies are: the sources of Czechoslovak history in Bulgarian archives; the Bulgarians who had studied in the Czech and Slovak lands since 1878; the activities of Konstantin Irecek in Bulgaria; the role of Czech teachers in the development of educational system of Bulgaria; Czech-Bulgarian and particularly Bulgarian-Slovak relations as reflected in little-known documents of Slovak origin; the Slovaks in Bulgaria, their social and cultural position; the status of the Bulgaria archives, and others.
LIBER ET LI BERTAS: THE ENGLISH HISTORIANS AND THE EASTERN CRISIS OF 1875-78
There is a long debate, in this country and elsewhere, about the political commitments of the representatives of the humanities, and more precisely the historians, though in many cases they cannot escape that. That was true of the English historians of the high Victorian period, especially during the Eastern question crisis of 1875-78. One of the results of its impact on the British public was the emergence of wide movement, combining humanitarian concern and political opposition to Benjamin Disraeli government’s support for the Ottoman sultan’s repressive rule over the Christian peoples of the Balkans. The movement known as „Bulgarian atrocities agitation“ or simply „Bulgarian agitation“ involved people from different strata of the Victorian society, from agricultural labourers to peers, but conspicuous position of most of the leading English historians in it (Th. Carlyle, E. A. Freeman, W. Stubbs, J. Froude, G. Smith, J. R. Green, J. R. Seeley, J. Bryce, W. Е. H. Lecky, A. W. Kinglake). Especially active in the activities „Bulgarian agitation“ were Edward A. Freeman (who due to his excessive enthusiasm was ironically dubbed by his political opponents the „Bernard of Clairvaux of the Bulgarian agitation“), and James Froude, despite their conflicts in scholarly and methodological matters. The participation of the English historians in the „Bulgarian agitation“ gave the movement particular ideological strength and their massive inclusion in it shows that it was not a case of expression of anecdotal evidence but of a true commitment with the cause of liberty in the Balkans.
“WOMEN’S INTELLECTUAL CIRCLE“ OF
PROF. PETAR MUTAFCHIEV
The paper verifies the working hypothesis that Professor Petar Mutafchiev – as highly educated, social democrat by conviction in his youth, influenced by German culture, socially engaged, belonging to the cultural institutions, involved in the nation-state modernization project – Кая had liberal beliefs about.the place of women in society and in particular in culture. Through historical analysis of archival and published documents, content analysis of periodicals and social network analysis paper explores the fundamental problem of the place of men in process of formation and professional career of female educated elites in Bulgaria in the 20th century. The study of social roles of Mutafchiev (as son, brother, husband, father, teacher, colleague and editor) allows to comment the social selection, vertical mobility and obtaining a social power of women intellectuals, and the operation of research networks in the country by mid-20‘ century.
THE HISTORIAN NIKOLA STANEV (1862-1949)
The article reconstructs the traces of the creative works and public activities left by the pedagogue, publicist, writer of schoolbooks, and the popularizer of the Bulgarian history – Nikola Stanev. The main stages of his professional career are outlined. The most essential contributions of him into the spreading of correct factuality and national responsible analytics of the Bulgarian history are described in the context of the dynarn- ic social political development of the country during the first half of the twentieth century.
TOPICAL LITERARY QUESTIONS ON THE PAGES
OF THE MAGAZINE „ENLIGHTENMENT“
The magazine „Enlightenment“ (organ of the Enlightenment Union, edited by Professor Petar Mutafchiev) was a leading periodical publication with pedagogical and general cultural profile in the period berween 1935 and 1943. It paid special attention to the problems of reading, publishing, book distribution and library practice. By publishing articles, commentaries, reviews and chronicles of the events it formed views about the need of development of the libraries and librarianship, encouraging the publishing of the Bulgarian books. Taken as a whole, these texts provide a comparatively complete picture of the literary life in the country in the terms of intensive modernization.
HISTORICIZING AND MODERNIZING:
ON THE NATURE OF CERTAIN IDEOLOGICAL
PROCESSES IN THE BULGARIAN SOCIETY BETWEEN
THE TWO WORLD WARS
The period between the two world wars is characterized by extreme dynamism of ideas, intense debates aabout the past, present and future of the country. The variety of opinions expressed in the years after World War I can not be reduced to two main views. The first is to look at the past in a search there for certain support ideological and moral, but also for political and economic renewal of the Bulgarian society.The second is oriented towards embracing new ideas and trends from the political, economic, social and cultural spheres. These two ideological positions closely intertwined in the debate about the relationship between tradition and modernization, between the past and the present, between native and foreign, west and east, etc. The text is an attempt to show some basic conceptual processes in the Bulgarian society in the period of consideration.
PROFESSOR PETAR MUTAFCHIEV AND THE BULGARIAN HISTORICAL SCIENCE
The article is a biographical sketch of the prominent Bulgarian historian-medievalist Petar Stoyanov Mutafchiev (1883-1943). It tracks the course of the life, the scientific contributions and the public activities of this remarkable person who occupies a special place in the development of Bulgarian historical science during the first decades of the 20th century and left a bright traces in the spiritual life of Bulgarians of that period. The basic works of Prof. Petar Mutafchiev are presented, which are some of the highest achievements of the Bulgarian historiography and contributed to the recognition of the authority of the Bulgarian humanities in Europe and worldwide.
THE USES OF HISTORY AND THEOLOGY IN
THE POLITICAL JOURNALISM OF ZACHARY STOYANOV
The paper examines the uses of history and theology by the prominent Bulgarian revolutionary, publicist and politician Zachary Stoyanov. Although he often admitted he was not a historian, in many of his works he acts as such, showing great thoroughness and insight. Equally, in his analysis of the events in post-Liberation Bulgaria Zachary Stoyanov often invokes the Holy Scripture and the Gospel.